These days, finding pure, clean, safe drinking water is difficult. It is brought on by factors such as population growth, industrialisation, and environmental degradation. Given this circumstance, it is even more crucial for every individual to be knowledgeable about water purification methods and the products on the market to guarantee the quality of our drinking water.
Numerous minerals are found naturally in water and are crucial for human health, but consuming too many of them can lead to numerous diseases. A good purifier retains the essential minerals and vitamins in the water while also removing the extra salts, microbes and suspended particles.
Several water filter systems available in the market can help you filter out excess salts and minerals. The mechanical principle behind water filters and water purifiers is the same. They first absorb contaminated raw water, filter out impurities like sediment and microorganisms, and then release clean water.
Kinds of water purifiers
One of the earliest methods of purifying water was adding chlorine. Hydrochloric acid, released by chlorine, interacts with the microbes and kills them. However, this method lost popularity due to its adverse effects on human health and its incapacity to eradicate specific types of protozoa, opening the door for other purifying methods.
Active carbon filter
This type of filter removes soluble gases like chlorine, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and ammonia, as well as organic substances like dead algae, leaves, or things that have been washed into a body of water. The carbon’s (charcoal’s) porous structure aids in absorbing pollutants like pesticides and chlorine. Home carbon filters typically have an activated silver lining that kills bacteria.
Concrete or plastic container layered with sand and gravel filter pathogens (susceptible microorganisms in water) and suspended solids. Water is poured into the filter’s top and then collected in a container with a secure lid; it should not contain hazardous chemicals because the filter cannot remove most chemicals. The top 2 cm of sand biolayer is where bacteria and other microorganisms flourish. The pathogens in the water are consumed by the microbes at the biolayer, improving the water’s quality. It can filter 12 to 18 litres in each batch and eliminates suspended particles and pathogens.
Filters for reverse osmosis:
By combining active carbon and particle filtration, reverse osmosis (RO) systems provide multi-stage water filtration. Here, tap water is forced through a membrane (a polymer film) with tiny pores to remove minerals and microorganisms from the water. The gathered impurities are then released through an outlet pipe. While an RO water purifier enhances the taste of water, it is difficult to guarantee that the water will always be safe because, occasionally, holes in the filter (caused by wear and tear or manufacturing defects) allow some bacteria to pass through. Wherever there is a high concentration of dissolved minerals in the water, RO filters are advised. The potential for the membranes in these filters to drain out some of the essential minerals is the RO purifier’s negative side. Additionally, it can only be fixed to one water tap and needs a constant water supply to operate.
Ultra Violet filters
Ultraviolet light is shone on the water to destroy microbes and bacteria by attacking the cell’s DNA. These filters remove up to 97% of pesticides. This filter can remove all pathogens, but chemicals, suspended particles, smell, taste, and colour cannot be. Two thousand litres per day can be purified using it.
You can see that various filtration methods remove pollutants, but no single method can thoroughly purge water of all impurities. Because of this, many home water filter systems combine two or more of these techniques. Be cautious when looking for a home water filter. Remember that not all of the undesirables will be eliminated. Also, remember that most water filters have some ongoing expense and that if they aren’t maintained regularly, they can damage your water, making it worse.